The discipline of developmental psychology studies how people change throughout their lives. It is particularly interesting how people grow and change during childhood.
Developmental psychologists study a broad range of theory areas, including biological, social, emotional, and cognitive processes. Empirical research in this area is primarily based on Western cultures, although some Japanese researchers have made a significant contribution to the field.
What are the 2 theories of child psychology?
Behaviorists believe that learning occurs through behavioral modifications that are strengthened through positive rewards. These reactions are triggered by environmental factors and reinforced through repeated experiences with the same stimulus.
Behavioral psychologists also identify specific behaviors that occur in response to a particular stimulus. These responses are then strengthened through repeated exposure Child Psychology Sutherland Shire to the stimulus and reinforcement of those behaviors with positive reinforcement.
The constructivist theories of Jean Piaget and Lev Semenovich Vygotsky emphasize that children create new knowledge through constructing their personal understandings of the world. They adapt and assimilate their existing schemas to new information, and they develop innovative approaches to acquiring knowledge (Torre et al., 2006).
Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages
Erickson’s psychosocial stages were influenced by Freud’s five psychosexual stages, but he added the influence of societal influences to his model. He recognized that individuals progress through these stages as they struggled to solve their conflicts.
Erikson’s psychosocial stages have an important influence on the interpretation of both adult and child development. They help clinicians understand the nature of development, and how certain personality characteristics can contribute to successful resolution of a conflict.